Ts’ao Yin and the Kang-Hsi Emperor: Bondservant and Master

Jonathan D. Spence

The Kang Hsi Emperor is famous for his six Southern Tours, in 1684, 1689, 1699, 1703, 1705 and 1707.

On the last four of these tours, Tsao Yin as Nanking textile Commissioner acted as host to the Emperor.

The goodwill as host is immeasurable. The burden equally high. The Emperor travels with a retinue of about 1000 persons. (see p 124 – 126 Tsao Yin and the Kang Hsi Emperor by Jonathan D Spence 1966).

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